BASIC CONCEPTS, PROBLEMS AND THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Any human activity is based on information. In the context of automated information processing and information systems, the term “information” is extremely important and the effectiveness of human-machine systems depends on its correct interpretation. In General terms, the information (from lat. informatio — explanation) — this is an unusual resource, the consumption of which does not reduce its quantity and quality. The cost of production together with the costs of collecting, storing, searching and processing information is significant, so the collective use of information has a huge advantage. Consequently, one of the main objectives of information systems development is to facilitate the collective use of information.
Information is inseparable from the process of informing users, so the information becomes informative, i.e. it turns into information only in case of their novelty and reliability, when they reduce uncertainty on a particular issue. On the way from the source to the user, information undergoes transformations in which the substantive aspects of messages are relegated to the background. Information is not any information, it carries something new that reduces the existing uncertainty. Information becomes a message, is expressed in a certain language in the form of signs and can be written on a tangible medium (a message is a form of information transfer). Information is transmitted to the channels of public communication.
Information — is information about the world (objects, phenomena, events, processes, etc.), which reduce the degree of uncertainty, incompleteness of knowledge, alienated from their Creator and become messages (expressed in a certain language in the form of signs, including written on a material medium). they can be reproduced by human transmission by oral, written or other means (by conventional signals, technical and computational means, etc.).
The process of saturation of production and all spheres of human life and activity with information is called Informatization.
The science that studies the properties of information, the issues of its collection, storage, search, processing, transformation, distribution and use in various fields of human activity is called computer science.
Speaking of information, imply its properties, namely:
1) information is reliable if it reflects the true state of Affairs, does not contain distortions;
2) information is complete if it is sufficient to understand and make decisions;
3) information is clear and understandable if it is expressed in the language in which those for whom it is intended communicate;
4) the value, quality of information is a measure of expansion, development of the thesaurus (a systematic dictionary of concepts indicating the semantic links between them, i.e. the totality of information available to the user or the system) spriymayuchoyu party in the reception and interpretation of the message, the degree of reduction of uncertainty of the economic entity, the degree of progress towards the goal;
5) adequacy of information is a certain level of correspondence created with the help of the received information, the image of a real object, process, phenomenon, etc.
Therefore, the information must be true, convincing, complete, accurate, useful, new, timely and up-to-date.
Data is information presented in a formalized form, accepted for processing by automatic means with the possible.