Information technology emerged several million years ago along with production on Earth. The simplest information technologies appeared with the beginning of writing. These are rock paintings, signs and drawings on the bark, papyrus, etc. the Appearance of books made by the printing method, has become a powerful impetus to the development of information technology. In its development, information technology has gone through several stages.
“Pen” information technology
reigned until the second half of the XIX century. All information processing was carried out manually with a pen, bills, books. Communication was maintained by sending packages, letters and the like.
“Mechanical” information technology.
The invention of the typewriter, telephone, voice recorder, modernization of the postal communication system allowed to significantly improve both individual operations and the entire technological process of information processing, to increase the productivity of managerial work. This mechanization of information technology has become the basis for the formation of organizational structures in the economy.
The “mechanical” information technology in the 40-50-ies of XX century was replaced by” electric”, based on the wide use of electric typewriters, copiers, portable dictaphones. The quality, quantity and speed of document processing have increased dramatically.
“Computer” information technology.
The constant growth in demand for information and information services has led to the use of a fairly wide range of technical means, especially electronic computers and communications. On their basis, computer systems and networks of various configurations are created not only for the accumulation, storage, processing of information, but also for the maximum approximation of terminal devices to the workplace of a specialist or Manager making decisions. This is an achievement of long-term development of AIT. With the advent and wide development of electronic computers (hereinafter — computers) and peripheral equipment came the era of computer information technology, which in its development has passed three stages.
The new information technology is characterized by the following features:
- user operation in data manipulation (not programming) mode. The user should see (output tools — screen, printer) and act (input tools — keyboard, mouse, scanner), and not know and remember;
- end-to-end information support at all stages of information flow on the basis of an integrated database, providing one unified form of data presentation, storage, search, display, recovery and protection;
- paperless document processing, during which only the final version of the document is recorded on paper, and intermediate versions and the necessary data are recorded on machine media and brought to the user through the PC display screen;
- interactive (interactive) mode of solving the problem with wide possibilities for the user;
- the possibility of collective execution of the document on the basis of a group of PCs, United means of communication;
- the possibility of adaptive restructuring of forms and ways of presenting information in the process of solving the problem.